THE USE OF LOCALLY OBTAINED RUBBER LATEX AS BINDER IN PAINT FORMULATION

(Chemical Engineering)
THE USE OF LOCALLY OBTAINED RUBBER LATEX AS BINDER IN PAINT FORMULATION
ABSTRACT

The main area covered by this project was a research into the desirability of using locally obtained rubber later as loinder in paint manufacture.
Considering the huge amount of money being spent on the importation of PVac (Poly vingl acetate) which is widely used as binder for paint manufacturing the efforts of this project cannot be over – emphasized.  Going though this project, it will be agreed that a gaint stride has been made towards the reduction of foreign exchange being siphoned out of the country through the importation of Pavc for paint manufacturing.
The natural rubber later used for this purpose was collected from Ozozo forest Rubber plation in Delta State.  This later will naturally coagulate within 4 – 2,4 house, if unpreserved, therefore the later used for this project was preserved with an anti – coagulant (Ammonia) to avoid coagulation.  Experiments carried out on this later exposed some of its characteristics.  Naturally a freshly tapped Rubber later will have a PH of between 6.8-7.0, but because of the ammonia used in the preservation the PH was found to be 10.97.  Another property of the later which affect the pigment volume concentration (PVC) of paints coating is the dry rubber content or the total solid content which was found through experiment to be 42%.
 The normal process of paint manufacturing was employed.  Shere were two samples of paints produced each differing from the other by the weight of either PVAC or the rubber later used.  One sample made of PVAC as a binder was regarded as standard and the other one with rubber later as binder compared with it.
In each case the binder was added last since it is known that it will not withstand the high shear stress developed in the machine during dispersion.   
The PH of the various samples were 8.1 and 10.15 accordingly.
The second sample with rubber later as binder has a PH value outside the standard PH.
The paint produced can be compared with the standard favourably.
Difficulty encountered during the formulation include the inability of Natrosol to dissolve due to delay in pouring the dissolved natrosol in the water faskly and then pour into the other dispersed components.  This however was poured off and new formulation made which game the desired result.
The binder power in PVA formulation is much better an concise with that of standard point and it has greater fitness.     
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION                                          
CHAPTER TWO
What is paint                                                             
Types of paint                                                           
Primeas                                                         
Under coat                                                    
Finishes                                                        
Varnishes                                          
Lacquer                                 
Stoppers and filler               
Sealers                                                          
CHAPTER THREE
Raw materials                                                           
Pigments                                                       
Types of pigments                                                   
Titanium dioxide (TiO2)                                           
Zinc Oxide (ZnO)                                                     
Lithopone ZnS. BaSo4                                                          
Yellow from oxide                
Lead chrom yellow                                      
Coppe phthalocryanine blue                                 
Extenders                                                                              
Calcium carbonate (CaCa3)                       
Gypsum (CaSo4)                                                      
Barium sulphate                                                      
Blame fixed                                                                                       
Silica                                                                          
Clay (Aluminum silicate)                                        
Mita extenders                                                                      
Binder                                                                                    
Latex                                                                          
Polyvinge Acetate (PVAC)                                     
Acrylic resin                                                              
Vehicles                                                                                
Additives                                                                                
Protective colloids or thickener                             
Coalescing agents                                                  
Dispersing agent                                                                 
Anti – form agent or deformer                                
Plastilers                                                                                
CHAPTER FOUR
Preservation and characteristic of rabber later   
Preservation of rubber latex                                               
Short team preservative                                          
Specific  gravity                                                                    
PH value                                                                               
Viscosity                                                                                
Refractive index                                                                   
Dry rubber content (solid content)                                    
CHAPTER FIVE
Formulation of paint                                                            
Factors guiding formulation                                               
Binder and vehicle characteristics                                   
Pigment characteristics                                          
Pigment volume concentration (PVC)                 
Pigment to binder ration (P:B)                               
Typical formulations                                                                        
CHAPTER SIX
Quality control and defects                                                
Viscosity                                                                                
Brushability                                                               
Dry trine                                                                                 
Opacity (covering power)                                        
Adhesion                                                                               
Dispersion                                                                             
PH  of coating                                                                       
CHAPTER SEVEN
Manicuring process and equipment                    
High speed disperser (cowlese)                             
Conclusion                                                               
References                                                               
 CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
The origin of paint and painting started thousands of yeas ago.
It can be rightly said that the desire to decorate their mummies sparked of this concept in Egypt around 15,000.
Since then, this practice has gradually developed through many stages until modern concept of paint and painting came into being.  This modern concept was brought about by gradual transformation from old materials and methods of paint making to the use of synthetic material and more modern machinery.
 During these early years, the paints were only used on mammies, cares and tombs for the purposes of decorating them only.  But now the modern use of paint serves the dual purpose of decoration as well as preventing the substrate on which it is applied.  Because of this dual manufactured to meet a specified condition by the use of modern equipment and synthetic materials.
Here in Nigeria, the first modern paint industry was established in 1962, and today we have more than 100 of such industries all using entirely imported materials and equipment for the purposes of producing paint.
Considering the staggering amount of foreign exchange the importation of these materials and equipment by the 100 industries will be directed towards the production of some of these raw materials within the country.
Rubber hater which is a product of hevea brasiciensis tree extensively grown in the western part of the country can be use as a binder in paint formulations against the PAVC which is currently being imported.  It is believed that if these persistent calls from both government and individuals for proper heamessment of local raw materials for our local industries are as serious as they want the public to believe, then initial effort should be towards the use of natural rubber later as a brinder for paint manufacturing as there is sure evidence that it will succeed.
Meanwhile the first slot has been fired in this direction by this project.   
 

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