(Business Administration and Management)

This research project is a very crucial study for the Entraco company plc. The study was to know the moutinational tools employed by the management of Entraco to increase the productivity of its workers.
The research instrument used in collecting the data were respondents which composed of sex, material of the company.
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CHAPTER THREE                                                             
Our some year ago, psychologist, managers and students of management have given increased attention to the need for human motivation at work place. They found this concept useful to both explaining human behaviour, particularly in work situation to increase the productivity of workers.
 The purpose of motivation is to optimize one’s performance and to attain a standard of excellence in any endeavour.
Managers of all types of organisation are continually faced with the problem of vast differeces that exist in the the performance or output of individual workers. Some employees often perform at high level and need little or no supervision and appear to enjoy what they are doing; other employees perform only at marginal levels and required constant attention and direction and are often absent from their duty posts. The reasons for these differences in performances are varied and complex, involving the nature of the job, the behaviour of the manager and the characteristics of the workers. The big question is , how can the manager maintain the high performance of the first group and also increase that of those producing marginally, when it comes to being highly productive on the job, to performing with little or no direction and to being a real contributor to the organisation. What can one usually say is the cause ? does money count first i.e the desire to draw bigger pay pocket? Is threat the principal factors? Or is it the sheer enjoyment of being part of a buy co-operative professional team that makes some employees perform high?
It has been recently shown  that this variation is caused by the motives of workers whether the employees or managers are high or low in achievement motivation makes a real difference in the effectiveness of financial incentives.
 Several studies have shown that offering additional financial reward for doing a task does not make a strongly- achievement oriented person to work harder or better.
A group of aggressive achievement minded salesmen would certainly be angry if their extra efforts were not recognized with much greater  financial reward. Yet offering them bonus is not what produces the extra effort. This may seen like a psychological distinction without a difference, but the interpretation of the meaning of the bonus plan genuinely affects performances.
People with relatively low achievement motivation, on the other hand, will work harder for increased financial reward. However does the money got by doing it interest them primarily as a measure of a accomplishment? Rather, it has over values for them.
This work therefore will attempt to probe into the motivational tools employed by the management of Enugu state transport company limited to motivate its employees. The findings will help to evaluate the problems and prospects of the organisation in the area of motivation and to suggest ways for improvement.
Enugu state transport company limited is a big company and also a strategic one because of the place of transportation in any economy.
Enugu state Transport company limited is a big company and  also a strategic one because of the place of transportation in any economy.
The government invested a huge amount of money to set up Entraco and therefore, expects returns from the investment that is why it is a profit oriented organisation. It is only through the effective performance of the employees that returns from investment can be achieved. This is why it is necessary to know how they are being motivated to work and achieve their organization’s objectives.
Enugu state transport company limited (ENTRACO) came into existence to alleviate the transport problems facing the people of the state.
The then Anambra state government attempted to tackle the situation and that gave birth to the transport company of Anambra state (TRACAS) launched in 1988. This was with the intention to provide cheap, reliable and efficient transport service to the people. But with the state creation exercise by the then Head of the state. General Ibrahim Babangida, the Enugu State came into existence. The assets and liabilities of TRACAS were then shared between the two states i.c . Anambra and Enugu, and with it, came the birth of Enugu State Transport company limited o n the 10th of October 1991.
In October 1996, more states were created under the Head of State, General Sani Abacha. Ebony state was created out of Enugu State which led to the sharing of Entraco’s Assets again between Ebonyi and Enugu States.
After that, ENTRACO inherited 17 operational buses. As at 1997 ENTRACO staff strength fell to 120. the same year 1997 ENTRANCO made a loss of eleven million naira. Right now, ENTRANCE does not have more than 7 (seven) cars both luxurious and small cars. Infact, the Enugu State Government has made serious plans so that the company might go back to its former position.
ENTRACO now has few depots located in different towns of Enugu, Anambra and other states of the Federation with its Head Quarters located along Enugu- Abakaliki Express road, Emene Enugu.
Its major routes are
Enugu                        Abuja
Enugu                        Portharcourt
Enugu                        Abakaliki
Enugu                        Udi /Oji River
Enugu                        Nsukka
In a workplace individual employees have different aims and aspirations, for instance, some would prefer to work very hard and yet be satisfied at least for working hard, some employees aims might be just to contribute to the job, other might  have aims of showing  appearance in the office and would not  like to be usefully engaged; still some would prefer working for short periods hence their aims would be to reduce the time they spend in the workplace to a minimum level.
When duties and authority of jobs and offices ware carefully described, then it would appear that accountability and responsibility could be determined easily . in great many cases. This is true . however, in an organisation, responsibility often can be avoided very easily by using bureaucratic techniques originally designed to produce efficiency.
 Similarly, when a departmental conflict creates the need for co-ordinating decision, a non responsible member worker can avoid responsibility by basing a decision on the existing power structure using history as the justification.
The exercise is an investigation research work specifically directed towards  finding out how managers motivate their workers. We are using the Enugu state Transport Company  ENTRACO” as our case study.
This research therefore limits itself to only investigating into the  motivational tools the company uses in the management of it’s human resources. Some of the ways in which they motivate their workers include.
a.            Wages and Salaries: Employees consider wages as the most important may of motivating workers. It can provide a source of motivation for employees to work effectively.
b.            Training and development: The importance of staff development in any organisation cannot be over-emphasized. A training scheme teachers the relevance of jobs and motivations and the necessary skills to apply.
c.            Promotion: This is the advancements to a higher rank. A high level job demands a lot of responsibilities  and it may be tasking on the individuals.
Other ways which are also important includes: job security, job enlargement, appraisal, Fringe benefit, insurance etc.
There are some unique and difficult words used in this project. However, they are used  carefully explained for easy comprehension of their meanings and context in which they are applied
1.         Motivation: This simply means ensuring appropriate behaviour of workers in an organisation by providing an environment in which people can satisfy their human needs through both their work and work environment. Motivation can be inform of promotion, bonus, performance appraisal, Salary increment, and provisions of Fringe benefit e.t.c.
huczynski and Buchanam (1985) defined motivation as a decision making process through which the individual choose desired out comes and sets in motion the behaviour appropriate to acquiring then.
2.         Management: This is the co-ordination of human and material resources in an organisation to achieve management goals. Umoh (1996) defined management as a process by which people (manages)  create, direct, maintain and operate purposive organisation through systematic co-operative human effort. It is also  the process of getting  things done by using other people to achieve set of objectives.
3.         Tool: This means any item article used to achieve an objective in an organisation. It is also an instrument or measure employed by management to achieve set objectives in an organisation.
Tool also means, the existence of infrastructural support. These things and more should be made available in the working places so that productivity could be increased.


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