(Business Administration and Management)

The primary aim and the positive aspect of impart of computerization in business is the economic aspect of raising the standard of information are process in business world. It sis firstly considered at the level of business organisation and the problems that led in the production of an electronic device know as computer and the importance of it.
 Secondly in chapter two, it reviews the stages that computer undergone and the contribution made by various people before the exist of the present computer that we now used. Also the limitations are also discussed lastly, the topic is narrowed down to and organization.
Finally, the recommendations are made toward the impact of computerization
1.0  Introduction                                                        
1.1 General background of computer      
1.2 Problems that led to use of computer            
1.3 Definition of terms                                             
1.4 Importance of computerization                                   
1.5 references                                              
2.0  Literature Review                                              
2.1 The origin of computer                                                 
2.2 contributions by various people                     
2.3 Limitation of computerization                          
2.4 Summary                                                                        
2.5 Reference                                                                       
3.0  Conclusion                                                        
3.1 Data presentation (highlights of study)          
3.2 Analysis of data                                                 
3.3 Recommendation                                                          
3.4 conclusions                                                                    
3.5 References                                                                                 
3.6 B bibliography                                        
         Main, with his question may ask, what is computer? This question must be answered, before stepping down to the subject matter.
I According to oxford Advanced learner’s Dictionary computer is defined as an electronic device which stores information on magnetic tape, analysis it and produces information as
i required form the data on the tapes.
ii principle of management I by who has it’s own view as an electronic tool capable of accepting data, interpreting such data, performing ordered operation on it and reporting on the out come of these operations.
Iii Collins in his book fundamentals of an electronic device that accepts data from an input unit, performs some kind of manipulation on the data in accordance with pre-determined instructions, and transfers that manipulated or processed data to an output unit for further processing or in final schedule and management control reports.
Then, Computerization is being defined by Collins in his book, fundamental of purchasing practice as the system of using computer in performing works in the offices in replace to manual system. Secondly. Is solving problems.
 Since creation, there has been constant quest by man to improve on the quality of his life and existence. This ever increasing question has been necessitated and propelled simply to address the challengers posed by his environment. Borne out of this need, a numbers of inventions have been made in virtually every field of human endeavors. Computer is one of the most spectacular such inventions. It is tool specifically made for computable problems. The present form of the computer is the culmination of series of inventions and research development spanning over centuries. The beginning of the development of the computer can be traced back to over 5000 years ago when the Chinese invented the Alacus. There after various other computation contention where developed. These ranged from manual devices such as the slide rule to purely mechanical devices and in more recent tries, electronic calculating machines. The use of computer is functionally reducing the world to global electronic village in which space is no loner a barrier to business .The applications of computer arts, Business, Education, Engineering finance, science and even technology.
Below is the review of computer parts 
This is how a computer looks like: it is made up of four main part according to the drawing
These are the input unit, out put unit, memory and the central processing unit which is the main regulator of all the activities performed the computer system.
Computer being an electronic machine which aids human being in business operation was produced as a result if challenges and problems that affected man. Some of these.
a poor production
b high cost of production  
c low production
d time consumption
e problem of record keeping
f problem of accuracy in job operation
g energy consumption
h lack of neatness of jobs
i problem of calculating large numbers
l low standard of communication link.
a.    poor production: formally the standard of production in business was really manual compared  to the  production of nowadays. This problem of poor production in business was crying for solution because the goals were poorly produced as a result of the manual system.
b.    High cost of production.
Since the production of few goods were made by large number of workers there by increasing the cost of the production of the goods which led to the increase of the goods.
c.    Low productivity:
The rate of producing goods were really slow and low because the  number of people involved may not be available for the firm and the manual system of the operation also slow the rate of  production.
d.    Time consumption:
Then, the time taken to get the done was so much, such that people were forced to think on a way out of the problem.
e.    Problem of record keeping:
During those days, records keeping and preparation were of great problem. This was as a result of insufficient space available for storing and arranging them. Misplacement made by the record keeper causes great deals of problems in the Business organizations
f.     Energy consumption:
Since those jobs were done by man, those led to much utilization of energy, which caused a great fatigue on the workers after one job.
g.    Problem of accuracy in job operation
This problem was as a result of the use of manual performance of the operation. When the job is large, there is always a problem of accuracy as a result of fastness
h.    Low standard of communication link.
This is one of the greatest problems that enhance the thought of computer in solving problem. This was because the communication link was not up to the standard, which also affected the growth of business. ie problem in communication.
i.      Problem of calculating large numbers for instance billions of naria was a problem. Errors were made on the process of calculating the numbers. It also limited the expansion of the business organisation.
j.      Problem of neatness of job:
They jobs which were being performed by manual means were not all that neat.
This is to say before the job is completed there will be dirt on them.
There are some key words that need to be define from the confect.
a.    Data and information
According to principle of management of “Data is a collection of unprocessed items; which on their own do not convey any meaning. Then information in order hand is the out come of processed data items; such meaning can be communicated.
b.    Business
According to oxford Advanced learner’s Dictionary, Business is a process of buying and sealing commerce and trade According to my own view, Business is a legal activity embark by man which is directed toward satisfying needs and wants through exchanging process in the name of price or money.   
C. Input unit of the computer and out put unit of computer This is the unit in which the computer is being communicated on what to do. However, the input unit can be compare to the mouth of a man. Then, output unit is the unit in which process information is being released to the user.
d.    Memory: This is the part of computer in which information and instruction and data are being store for future usage    
e.    Register:
A temporary holding place in a computer for a particular instruction data item, or piece of information.
f.     Arithmetic logic unit (A.LU):
This is the part of the central processing unit that handles the actual manipulation of data.
g.    Control unit
It is the part of central processing unit that manages the symbol manipulation process.
The importance of computer can seen in the following areas of human endeavors.
i.      Importance of computer in Business
ii. Importance of computer in Education
iii. Use of computer in hearth care
iv. Importance of computer in fiancé e.t.c
I Importance of computer in Business: computer plays a very vital role in business standard production Nowadays, production of items have been up-graded to a higher level in terms of designing This is because most designing are made of computer’s. Secondly in the aspect of records.
Keeping large records, which occupied a lot of space before the use of computer, is now preserve and store in a material known as disc. Computer creates of opportunity of storing very large quantities of data in a small space and at a relatively low lost.
In business, computer plays the role of versatility that is it can perform different activities e.g. processing of files, calculation, plotting of graphs, e.t.c interns of communication computer had helped in facilitating the means of receive and sending information.
This is done through the use of internet (e-mail) it is also one of the fastest means of communication and it also secured the information in the aspect of time, computer had reduced the rate of time taken
Operation such that it can perform many thousand of operation or calculation in a second. Computer are not only more accurate that human beings, but they are also more consistent, that is to say that given the same data and the same answer every time that particular process is repeated. All these factors put together help to reduce cost of production of goods.
ii. Importance of computer in Education : Computer plays a vital role in the marking of multiple choice examination paper and the processing of examination result for west many examination board such as the west African Examination council (AWCE)
Joint Admission and matriculation Board (JAMB). Further more, computer Assist learning through the programs that can guide the user through a course if instruction that are displayed on the visual Display unit or screen.
iii. Use of computer in health care. Computer is used in diagnosis and treatment of diseases .ct is also used in intersive monitoring of patients during emergencies and surgical operation ct is also used in chemical administration, medical records, financier accounting and general administration.
iv. Importance of computer in finance:
computer play important role in the finance department of any organisation four in stance in general accounting (pay roll in votary, general ledger and account receivable) budget and tax planning, analysis of investments and even break-even analysis.


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