THE ROLE OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT IN GENERATING EMPLOYMENT AMONG SCHOOL LEAVERS IN ENUGU STATE
The purpose of the study was on the role of Business Management in Generating employment among school leavers in Enugu State. The researcher stated three problem which centered on investigating the extent business management had generated employment for these who have acquired its skills. This problem was broken in there parts which includes the following questions.
a) Do business student, with business education skills readily get jobs?
b) Do employers prefer workers with business management education skills to these without business education skills?
c) Do business education or management students have a good background of general education course which are necessary for their jobs?
In order to solve the above problems, three hypotheses were formulated which included the following:
a) There is a relationship existing between business management education and availability of job.
b) There is the tendency for employers to perform these with business education skills to these without business education skills.
c) Business management education workers do not usually have a good background of general education course which are essential for their jobs in the industry. Related literature was reviewed on the following topics which constitute the title of the project. The topics include;
a) The psychological and sociological theories concerning employment.
b) Importance of management education in preparing youths for employment.
c) Business management education as it generates employment and
d) Career education.
The study was limited to typists and clerical staff in the institution whose numerical strength are 79 and 134 respectively questionnaires and oral interviews were sued as the instruments for collecting data. The data collected were studied and analyzed. The statistical means used in analyzing the data was percentages.
From the finding, it was revealed that out of he three hypotheses tested, two were upheld. On the basis of the findings, certain recommendations were made on how business management education will be improved in the secondary schools
TABLE OF CONTENT
1. CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 GENERAL BACKGROUND TO THE SUBJECT MATTER
1.2 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SUBJECT MATTER
1.3 PROBLEM THAT THE STUDY WILL BE CONCERNED WITH
1.4 THE IMPORTANT OF STUDYING THE AREA
1.5 DEFINITION OF IMPORTANCE TERMS
1.6 REFERENCE (USING APA METHOD)
2. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 THE ORIGIN OR THE SUBJECT AREA
2.2 SCHOOL OF THOUGHT WITHIN THE SUBJECT AREA
2.3 THE SCHOOL OF THOUGHT RELEVANT TO THE PROBLEM OF STUDY
2.4 DIFFERENT METHODS OF STUDYING THE PROBLEM
3. CHAPTER THREE: CONCLUSION
3.1 DATA PRESENTATION (HIGHLIGHTS OF THE STUDY)
3.2 ANALYSIS OF THE DATA
The problem facing Nigeria is that of unemployment among young school leavers especially at secondary school level.
These young school leavers flocked the labour market with the hope of securing employment which is not exacting. Almost all of them are semi-skilled and thus find it difficult secure jobs. Unemployment in Nigeria is fast becoming a national threat and according to Musa (1983).
No country had ever survived high rate of unemployment because it creates social instability
This high rate of unemployment among secondary school leavers can be attributed to the curriculum drawn for secondary school which is not diversified. They are not functional enough to equip them with enough skills that can make them employable.
In his own opinion, Blaug, (1974), attributed this problem of unemployment to the kind of management education that are given to people.
In line of this he commented that
There is something in management education that makes people unemployable, … it gives them the wrong skills or the wrong attitudes if the skills and attitude now featured by educational systems are wrong.
He continued by suggesting in management education that vocational skills and attitude. In effect, vocational management education is needed in secondary school to provide this vocational skills or rather to produce skilled workers for specialized jobs.
Vocational management education can be said to be that aspect of management given is a school that leads to acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge. Osuala (1981), stated the following as the goals that any vocational programme should aim at.
1. Preparing the learner for entry into employment and advancement in his chosen career
2. Meeting the manpower needs of society
3. Enabling the learner to wisely select a career.
It is in this perspective that the course business management as branch of vocational education can contribute a lot. According to Anao (1986). Business management is;
an educational process or context which has primary aim at the preparation of people for roles in enterprises, such roles could be as employee, entrepreneur employer or simple as self-employed.
This means that it provides skills and training to the people that will make them employable. Onah (1973) defined it as:
that part of our total management education which provides vocational, personal, consumer business and socio-economic competencies needed for man’s effective participation in the society in which he lives.
Business management infact means different things to different people. Nolan et al (1967) indicated that to some people, business management refers to those business subjects taught at the secondary level such as book-keeping, typewriting, shorthand, general business, and business law. To others, it is synonymous with any learning for entrance into the business world given at any educational level. Another school of thought takes it as post-secondary management education in subjects such as accounting, marketing, office administration, secretarial and finance.
In this own definition, Kanu (1986) referred to it as those business programmes and courses taught at the secondary school level. To sum it up. Business management can be taken as a programme of instruction designed to develop office and vocational competency in students which include the major subjects like accounts, economics typewriting, shorthand, business method and office practice.
Business management began in this country with the development of the private commercial school. Awokoya (1979) recorded that the formal type of business management was found in the last decades of the 19th century when some Nigerians in business partnership with the oversear’s exporters had to learn simple commercial arithmetic, book-keeping business communication skills, acquire some business English Vocabulary and some typewriting for the purpose of facilitating business management and transaction.
It was expected that these early businessman sent their children to school to learn simple profit and less accounts concepts. Infact business management was pioneers by the need of their export market. The missionaries contributed to the development of business management is the process of trying to produce clerks, secretaries, and typists who would assist in their office.
According to Olactain (1982) the missionaries who controlled and management of education system for a greater part of Nigeria’s Present history fashioned the management system along paper qualification. Training in useful skills, course or subjects leading to the development of occupational skills could be appended to the main stem which is general education. According to him, parents contended that business school were meant for dullards. People believed that a business school was synonymous with a typing and shorthand institute where lower fees were paid. Infact business school were rated very low that students quickly abandon the school as soon as they gain admission into a secondary school. The curriculum of secondary school level only consists of little or no subjects in business management education because of this negligence’s, these commercial school were poorly equipped and inadequately staffed. This contributed to the unpopularity of courses offered in business schools. In a research carried out by Mbamalu (1980). It showed that poor funding, staffing, lack of equipment, workshop, and prejudice against business schools are the major causes of its unpopularity among students.
Currently, the attitude of parent, employers, students and government toward business education or commercial schools seem to be changing. The aspiration of people for a better standard of living are getting higher today them before, people now have a better view of business management as the means through which school leavers who have the skill can be employable.
The National Policy on Education (1980) on secondary school take cognizance of the role of business management in the new 3-3 system of secondary education in Nigeria, by advocating that it be included among the core subjects available to the students. The policy states clearly some of its objectives on secondary education which stated the major goals of business management as:
1) To diversify it curriculum to cater for the different in talents, opportunities and roles possessed by or open to students after their secondary school courses.
2) To prepare individuals for useful living within the society.
3) To equip students to live effectively within our modern age of science and technology.
To be able to achieve the above stated objectives, government plans that secondary education (Business Management). Should be of six years and be given in stages – junior secondary school stage and senior school stages. Its further stated that:
The junior secondary school will be both pre-vocational and academic; it will be free as soon as possible, and will each all the basic subjects which will enable publics to acquired further knowledge and develop skills.
That is why the curriculum is structured to include business courses as one of the core subjects.
1.2 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SUBJECT MATTER
The central problem in this study is to what extent is business management generating employment for those who have acquired its skills?
With reference to the above question, the following questions are posed:
a) Do students with business management skills readily get jobs?
b) Do employers prefer workers with business management educations skills to those without business management education skills?
c) Do business management students have a good background of general educations course which are necessary for their jobs?
1.3 PROBLEM THAT THE STUDY WILL BE CONCERNED WITH
To be able to solve the problems posed above, the following hypothesis will be tested.
a) There is a relationship existing between business management and availability of job.
b) There is the tendency for employers to prefer those with business management education skills.
c) Business management workers do not usually have a good background of general education courses which are essential for their jobs in the industries.
1.4 THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING THE AREA
It is necessary that business management should be purposeful and functional. To this end it must be geared toward generating employment among the school leavers in Enugu and the society as a whole.
Based on the findings, people will fully understand the significance of business management in employment opportunities among the school leavers and will help to encourage people to study the course.
It will make the students aware of the opportunities available to them in the area of typist and clerical work.
The study will serve the purpose of providing occupational information to the students so that they will know where to look for job and provide them the knowledge of the objectives of the job.
The findings if carefully incorporated into secondary school curriculum by the curriculum planners will help the teachers in impacting the designed knowledge and objective for acquisition of jobs in the student hence they are equipped for the skilled labour in work. Moreover, the incorporation of the findings in our school well go a long way to achieving one of the objectives of secondary school education as it is stated in our new National Policy on Education. It split secondary education into two so that at whatever level a child leavers the school he is equipped for employment. Thus minimizing present dropout system.
1.5 DIFFERENT OF IMPORTANT TERMS
For the purpose of this study, certain terms have been used. Their definition are stated here to facilitate the understanding of the study.
a) IMT – Institute of management and technology Enugu Campus
b) BUSINESS MANAGEMENT – It is a programme of instruction designed to develop. Office and vocational competency in the student. The majors subjects include. Accounts, commerce, typing shorthand, business methods and office practice.
c) EMPLOYMENT – It is the process of giving one work in order to earn a living.
d) GENERATION – Bringing employment among school leavers into existence.
e) GRADUATES – One who has completed a course at educational institution.
f) VOCATIONAL EDUCATION – It is an instruction designed to enable a person to be more effective in one group of it is highly productive from of education as it deals with specialized skills
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