THE IMPLICATION OF COMMUNICATION ON LABOUR CONFLICT
The researches will b carried out on the implication of communication on labour conflict. Inspite of importance of communication in an organization many do not know how to go about it o enhanced good industrial relationship and bring about conflict resolution.The research work is to delve into conflict management and ways of achieving free flow of information through communication by management. He research also intends to drive home that with effective communication channels within the organization labour conflict can be minimized and either portion can shift or deviate from initial stand to find a common ground for conflict resolution.The source of data for the study will be obtained through questionnaires, direct interview and also related literature, text books, magazine, newspaper, journals will be reviewed and analyzed for the project.The constraint envisaged in the project is time finance collection and analysis of data production and other expenses are major limiting factors coupled with hectic academic programmes.The organization such as Nigeria Labour congress government ministry and public/private limited company will be visited for satisfactory information and adequate conclusion and recommendation will be drawn.
This research-the implication of communication on labour conflict is in partial fulfillment of the condition for the award of Higher national Diploma in Accountancy.Despite, the importance of communication in an organization many still do not know how to go about it to enhance sanity where there is conflict and prevent conflict where there is calm.The work delve into conflict management in an organization through communication by management it contains ways of carrying out effective communication in organization to avoid labour conflict.The general state of hypothesis was based on the consumption that communication has implication on labour conflict prevention and resolution. With review of relevant literature and administration of questionnaire sufficient information in relation to the system under study were sourced.In line with the results of the investigation conclusions and recommendations were made and if adhere to would achieve effective communication ability of manager to curb labour conflict.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.6 SCOPOE AND LIMITATION
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION
2.2 FORMS OF COMMUNICATION
2.3 CHANNELS OF COMMUNCATION IN GUNIEAS
2.3.1 FORMAL COMMUNICATION
2.3.1 (A) VERTICAL COMMUNICATION
2.3.1 (AI) DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION
2.3.1 (AII) UPWARD COMMUNICATION
2.3.1 (B) HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION
2.3.1 © COMPLEX COMMUNICATION
2.3.2 INFORMAL COMMUNICATION CHANNELS
2.3.3 (A) RUMOURS
2.3.2 (B) GRAPE LINE
2.4 GRAPHIC AIDS TO COMMUNICATION
2.4.1 (A) TABLES
2.4.1 (B) FIGURES
2.4.1 © GRAPHS
2.4.2 ADVANTAGES OF DIAGRAMATIC AIDS
2.4.4 BARRIER TO EFFECTIVE COMUNICATION
2.4.5 CONSEQUENCE OF POOR COMMUNICATION
2.4.6 RULES OF GOOD COMMUNICATION
2.5 HISTORY OF LABOUR UNION
2.6 LABOUR UNION
2.7 LABOUR CONFLICT
2.8 INTER UNION CONFLICT
2.9 MANAGEMENT AND UNION CONFLICT
2.10 LABOUR CONFLICT RESOLUTION
RESEARCH AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH APPROACH
3.2 RESEARCH STRATEGIES
3.3 SOURCES OF DATA RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
3.4 METHODS OF INVESTIGATION
4.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
4.1 TEST AND PROVE OF HYPOTHESIS
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Communication happens to be a pivot upon which all management functions and activities revolves. It will be difficult if not impossible for an organization to function effectively and efficiently without effective communication. Also there is no way man power can be effective and co-ordinate if he cannot communicate his actions and discussion to his subordinates.
There is no substitute for hard work to communicate one must practice and learn by one’s mistakes. One cannot come to graph with report writing until. One has sat down and wrested with actual problems of making certain representation to one higher management, one cannot hope to speak convincingly to a meeting of staff without having ever talked on ones feet under pressure. The foundation of successful communication is practice and unsleeping criticism.
According to C.S. Deverell in 1978 by Gee &co ltd, he said communication may be said to have two aspects:
a. As an exchange of opinions and ideas it is concerned with human relations. If management is the art of getting things done through people nature of relationship created becomes all important in the planning of duties works co-ordination, control of activities and motivation. If these do not established and maintain satisfactory human relationship, it is likely that the ob devote, set will be attained. A sizable proportion of all industrial disputes can be traced in part to defects in this aspect of communication.
b. it is also a matter of skills in convening information from one person to others. These skills must be mastered by persisted practice and review.
It is necessary to understand the sense in which communication has been said to be an exercise in human relations to learn how to real to listen and to interpret feelings and needs as well as ideas and information. One has to understand communication is effected inside an organization through formal and informal channels and networks. For instance, a bank and a wholesale selling organization have inherited every different arrangement for exchange information, why one form of communication is effective at one level of employee and completely in appropriate at another.
According to Peter Little in his book “Communication in Business” communication is a chameleon of word changing the colour of its meaning with a change of speaker (or listener) more than most.
The military historian thinks of an army’s lines of communication; the sociologist of Newspaper and broadcasting. The civil engineer thinks of roads and railways, the electronic engineer thinks of telephones and telephones. For some elderly businessmen, it probably still call to mind old words contexts that are Edwardian commercial jargon for a letter.
It is possible to detect a common element in these varied meaning the idea of connection between people for the purpose of passing a message. Subsequence the words meaning widened to refer to the act of message-passing to the channel along which the message passed, or to the message itself.
It is worthy of note that to pass on message to others we have to use symbols of some kind 9words, gestures, drawing) that standard for the ideas we are trying to convey these symbols that are private to ourselves and therefore incomprehensive to others.
The ability to communication with others is an essential attribute of human life and we are all grappling with communication tasks most of time we are awake.
Only when we are alone and also not reading or writing (or like listening audio or watching television) do we tightly stop receiving manages from the world and people outside ourselves stop trying to send out manages to the fellow human earnings around us. Communication plays, them vital part in our personal daily lives. Out it is communication at work that is the concern of this study.
In Gasmen organization there are the formal and informal channel of communication.
In informal channel of communication, w have the vertical and horizontal communication channels. Vertical communication channel refers to channels of communication in a line organization. By line organization we mean vertical line organization where one rank clearly been below another to which it is directly related. Under this arrangement the instructions of the management move downwards through a recommended process and the reports passing to the management move upwards through the same press. The hierarchical structure set up by the management is the structure through which information has to pass both in upwards and downward communication.
Horizontal communication is the communication between peers and departmental heads. It is communication between those of comparable status. In this type of communication letters memos and reports features prominently to ensure that there is unimpeded communication between the vertical communication where directives and instructions on what to do how to do it and when to do it, procedures and practices etc are sent downwards while non-directive message such as report; explanations on request to and decision making are sent upwards.
Every firm or similar organization depends on an intricate communication network which has grown yup during the years and has proved itself indispensable the bigger the firm the more elaborate the system must be and the greater the likelihood of expensive and time wasting mistakes caused through misunderstanding messages.
There is always an organization chart, which also signifies the communication line. The precise structure of the chart will vary from organization and it should be remembered that every practical network will be very much complicated than it appears in simplified diagram.
A manger should be conversant with the line of communication and should also be able to teach the subordinates the importance of following the line as laid down by management.
Several skills to be possessed by manager includes managerial skill of communication. With an effective communication skill managers can direct the affairs of the organization by ensuring that the staff are notified of the policies of the organizaion. Whenever there seem to be breakdown of communication the labour force will feel marginalized and will seek ways of addressing the perceived marginalization.
They may make use of sumours and grapevine information. These two sources of information are damaging to an organization because they will most times not carry the current information about situation in the organization. Any labour force that depends on rumors and grapevines for information about the organization especially on critical uses is bound to be in a continuous conflict with the management of that organization.
Rumours though damaging to an organization but it also has advantages some of which are that if a labour union hears a rumour about an adverse happening to the company and act on it the company would be served from such adversity. If management on the other hand hears a rumor about impending action of the labour union that would paralyze the operations of the company. It can take appropriate action to circumvent such action.
Labour conflict like any other conflict is bound to occur in any organization because of human nature whose though desire and aspiration are not always the same. The attainment of the organization goals and objectives depends on how the labour force is manipulated. In the course of managing the labour force, it is most likely that problems conflict and misunderstanding may occurs. The situation may be further aggravated or assuaged by the activities of trade union movement as well as exiting labour legislate on the attitude of employees as well as general level of economic activities and development. These usually lead to strike action which is the ultimate eruption of ill feelings or frustration
To understand the nature of labour conflict requires an appreciation that action and though go together to produce behaviour. Many employee are morally minded and accuse the employer of resisting all attempt for social and economic changes within the organization the thinking of the average workers is that the employer is incentive to his plight. The workers feel there should be greater employee participation in decision affecting them. They feel that injustice and exploitation must give way to fair play, equity and justice. The employer on his own part argues that the employee does not know what (the employer) wants. This situation of variances in what one party feels about the other creates misunderstanding and as Shakespeare sand “When misunderstanding arrives folly is at hand.
The industrial revolution in Europe opened the eyes of workers towards agitating for their rights. In 1945 the civil service union of Nigeria. Called out its members for general strike. That was the first union led strike in Nigeria. This was to protest their poor condition of service and management centers which was then dominated and controlled by the colonial masters.
The academic staff union of Nigeria universities (ASUU) have gone on strikes several times since in the 1980s and the union have been prescribed twice. The Nigerian labour congress (NLC) have also gone on strikes several times to protest against either poor condition of service or government policies which they sees being unacceptable to the progress of the Nation. The labour crisis of 1993 and 1994 were to protest the annulment of June 12, 1993 election. Since the inception of the present democratic government in 1999, the Nigeria labour congress have also gone on strikes to protest the increase which the government tagged’,
“Appropriate pricing of petroleum products”. On this crisis, the leaders of Nigerian labour congress were corrected detained and arraigned before the cannot. But agreement was reacted when the two agreed to increase its work force wages salaries and other allowances to cushioned economic implication. The Nigerian union of petroleum and Natural gas workers (NUPENG) called out their members on strike, which paralyzed the supply of petroleum products to different part of Nigeria in 1994. They did this with the senior staff association of the petroleum sector.
The strike brought the nations economic activities to an almost standstill.
In the history of Nigeria the Nigerian police force for the first time in the years 2001 when on strike to press home improvement in the working condition of their service, including increase in salary, payment in areas of all allowance owed them and their general welfare such as promotion.
If their employers convincingly communicated this various associations of the reasons for the actions they would not have embarked on the strike. This is where the implication of communication comes to play. A manager with communication skill can do and undo. He can make the recalcitrant labour leader to listen to him and eventually advance to the tune of the manager.
It is pertinent therefore to look at the implication of communication on labour conflict in order to ascertain whether communication is an effective tool of labour conflict prevention and resolution or not.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
The under mention problems are likely to affect the implication of communication on labour conflict.
i. The lack of well designed effective communication channels in some organization.
ii. The difficulties in selecting a good communication medium to enable the receiver decode the message.
iii. The inadequacy in encoding the message by the sender.
Iv. The lack of good academic background of some manager.
v. The inability of some organization to see communication as an effective tool with which to prevent and resolve labour conflicts.
vi. The lack of communication on the part of various relevant institutions (eg Nigerian Institute of Management Universities Polytechnics Colleges of Educations ) towards educating organization and the public on the effective use of communication in any field of human endeavour.
vii. The non-effective use of the communication channels in organization where the exist by both the managers and other members of staff.
viii. The existence of factions in the various unions.
ix. The insistence of either management or the labour union that its opinion must prevail.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The major objectives of the study are:
I. To determine if there is any deficiency in encoding message by senders
ii. To investigate what leads to he mobility of some organizations to see communication as an effective tool with which to prevent and resolve labors conflict.
iii. To discover what leads to lack of well designed effective communication channels in some organization.
iv. To discover whether lack of good academic background of some managers have any effect on communication skill.
v. To discover the effect of non-effective use of the communication channels in some organization where the exist by both managers and other members of staff.
vi. To investigate how effective communication can enable manager secure the agreement of both management and labour union on key issues.
vii. To discover how the existence of factions in various labour unions can be addressed by mangers that possess communication skill.
viii. To investigate into season for difficulty in selecting a good communication medium, which would enable the receiver of the manager to decode it.
ix. To find out how the lack of communication on the part of various relevant institutions of higher learning towards educating organizations and the public on the effective use of communication in the yield of human endeavor effects the acquisition of effective communication skill in the management of conflict.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is significant because it:
i. Provide the solution concerning the existence of deficiencies in encoding manages by sender.
ii. Give solution as to the circumstances that bring about the inability of some organization to see communication as an effective tool with which to prevent and resolve labour conflict.
iii. Show what leads to lack of well designed communication channels in done organization.
iv. Show whether lack of good academic background of certain managers has any affect on communication skill.
v. Give solution as to the effect of non effective are of the communication channel in come organization where they exist by both the managers and other members of staff on communication skill and subsequent prevention and resolution of labour conflict.
vi. Show how the possession of communication skill can enable a manager secure the agreement of both management and the labour on key mnes.
vii. Provide answers as to how the existence of factors in various labour unions can be addressed by the managers who possess communication skill.
viii. Bring out the answer as to the reason for difficulty in selecting a good communication medium which enable the science of the manage to decode it.
ix. Provide answers to show the lack of commitment on the part of various relevant institutions towards educating organizations and the public on the effectiveness of communication in any field of human endeavour affects the acquisition of communication skill and subsequently how it affects prevention and resolution of labour conflict.
1.4 HYPOTHESIS AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS
GENERAL STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
In this study the general statement of hypothesis is that, communication has implication on labour conflict prevention and resolution.
a. NULL HYPOTHESIS: Statistically, Null hypothesis with symbol HO: BI = O
This indicates that each independent variable of communication skill (X1 X2 X3……..X) has implication on labour conflict preventions and resolution.
b. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS: This is statistically represented with symbols HA:
BI = O. Indicating that each in dependent variable of communication skill (X1, X2, X3 …..Xn) has no significant implication on labour conflict prevention and resolution.
Where: Ho = Null Hypothesis
HA: = Alternative hypothesis
B1 = Coefficient of independent variable x1, X2, X3 ….Xn.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Research question below will be answer in this study:
i. Has the lack of good educational qualification any effect on the managerial skill of communication?
ii. How do managers without managerial qualities exhibit good managerial skill of communication?
iii. Why do some organizations not have well effective communication channel?
iv. What are the reasons for non-effective use of communication channels in an organization where they exist by both the managers and other members of staff.
v. What are the difficulties in selecting a good communication medium to enable the receiver decode the message.
vi. What are the cause of distrust existing between managers and other members of staff on one hand and between managers of different department on the other hand?
vii. Why are there deficiencies in encoding the message by the sender?
viii. What are the cause of inferiority complex in come managers especially when they see that any of their subordinates is becoming more qualifies than they are?
ix. Why do some organization not see communication as an effective tool with which to prevent and resolve labour conflicts?
x. What should be the role of various relevant institution (eg. Nigeria Institute of management universities, polytechnics colleges of education) towards educating the organization and the public on the effectiveness of communication in any field of human endeavour?
xi. What can managers do to understand certain (or at least near certainty) different aspects of human behaviour and predict for certain (or at least near certainty) how an individual (their subordinates) will react to every given situation?
xii. What should manager do to those who oppose their managerial styles and have hijacked the labour unions press home their feelings?
xiii. How should managers handle the existence of factors in the various labour unions?
xiv. How should managers bring the management and the labour union to reach agreement on a knotty issue?
DEFINITION OF TERMS
a. CONFLICT: All kind of opposition, antagonistic or disagreement.
b. CONFLICT RESOLUTION: In this work it mans of settle dispute between the labour union and the management of any given organization.
c. ENCODE: System of signs words action, painting, writing etc in which messages are put in order to convey a meaning to the person receiving the message.
d. DECODE: Being able to interpret the meaning of a message that is encoded.
e. EMPLOYEES: All workers employed in an organization paid wages or salary excluding management.
f. MANAGEMENT: Employees other than the junior workers tasked with over seeing enterprises objective being carried out by subordinates.
g. UNION: Group of people (workers) united forgetter with q view to pursue a common goal.
h. MOTIVATION: Incentive given to workers as compensation for work done and stimulation for efficiency.
i. PRIMARY: In this work it means chienessing subject under study to its satisfactory level or level of pre-eminence.
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