THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMPUTER OPERATION ON THE INTERNAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEM IN THE GOVERNMENT ESTABLISHMENT
(A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA TEACHING HOSPITAL ENUGU STATE)
With the major focus of this project in mind which is ““THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMPUTER OPERATION ON THE INTERNAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEM IN THE GOVERNMENT ESTABLISHMENT”. One should be able to draw the conclusion that:
Without the introduction of computer operation to accounting system the old primitive archaic manual data processing method will be outdated and consequently bring about strong set backs in the accounting fields in our bid to achieve the organization goal of producing accurate financial reports.
With the introduction of computer system the following highlighted hurdles of accounting operation have been overcome:
a) Boring rout me work
b) Delayed monthly personal emolument cards
c) Delayed payment of staff salaries
d) Human influence and human manipulation on/off accounting reports
e) Ineffective and inefficient data processing method
f) Idleness among the government workers.
Due to the complexity of the internal accounting system in any standard government establishment, the need for introduction and application of computer operation to data processing has been considered necessary.
Based on the data gathered analyzed and presented in the previous chapters, the researcher is of the opinion to
1) Manual data processing is inadequate to meet the numerous demand for quick fast and accurate data processing that characterized the present day internal accounting system.
2) There are various type of computer system that can meet the current needed degree of information processing to produce accurate accounting result.
3) Many government establishments are in support of the introduction and application of computer operation in their internal accounting system for effective operation.
4) Data shows that many government establishment are yet to go computerized due to common problems associated with the use of computer which we have?
a. Flaws in the computer printouts.
b. Possibility of human manipulation to perpetuate fraud
c. Lack of trained computer personal
d. High cost of acquisition and maintenance
e. Tendency for increase in unemployment
5) Computer system are subject to physical and environmental viruses which may defeat the purposes of its application in the data processing.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 General Introduction
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Scope of the Study
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Limitation of the Study
1.8 Definition of Terms
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 What is Computer
2.2 Historical development of modern day computer
2.3 Generation of Computer
2.4 Classification of computer-System
2.5 Information processing
2.6 Functional part of a computer
2.7 Benefits derivable from computer
2.8 Vulnerability and problem of computer system
2.9 Branches of Accounting
2.10 Business accounting package
3.0 Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Area of Study
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Source of Data
3.5 Sampling Method
3.6 Research Instrumentation
3.7 Validation and reliability of research instrument
3.8 Method of Investigation
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data
4.1 Presentation and Analysis of Results
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
1.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Presently, the Nigerian economy has witnesses a range of technological evolution, computer technology is one of such evolution, computers of varying types have been introduced to substantially enhance human efforts in industrial commercial, official and domestic activities, accountancy, generally known as the language of business is not exception and has been affected by these changes in technology.
Accounting has been defined as the recording of economic events associated with an enterprise using information and data which is (usually) expressed in numerical and monetary terms and the communication of the result in the form of financial statement to the users group.
The history of accounting as well as that of internal accounting system reflects the ability to respond to changing social needs. Today changes in social attitudes combine with development of information technology, quantitative methods and the behavioural sciences to affect radically the environment in which account operates. These changes have created a number of problems for and at the same time contributed positively to the accountants in the government establishment in their attempts to secure effectiveness in data processing to secure desired and accurate information for the running of the organization.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Internal accounting system of any establishment must be operated with the framework of the general and professional requirement which is made up of various accounting standard and guidelines among which are:
International Accounting Standard (IAS) promulgated by International Accounting Standard Committee (IASC) and the statement of accounting standard board (ASB) which are the prerequisites for effective internal accounting system operation in any government establishments.
Moreso, with due consideration given to the economic and environmental factors like increasing pace of industrialization, technological innovation growth and widened markets and the complexity of business world which called for timely, fast adequate efficient and effective data processing and presentation of useful information needed within and outside the government establishments, this study was undertaken to seek solution to such agitating question as:
What problems did MDP posed on the internal accounting system in government establishments?
Why computer operation?
What degree of compliance attained in line with general and professional requirement on internal accounting system?
Computer operation and human knowledge compared and contrasted.
What is nature and form of accounting of stem in operation in government establishment?
Finally, the challenges posed by the introduction of computer technology to the internal accounting to the internal accounting officers it solution would be adequately search for this study and will be provided on the way forward.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of computer operation on the internal accounting system in the government establishments.
- To trace the historical back and development of manual data process (MDP) vis-à-vis electronics data processing (EDP).
- To assess the benefit of EDP over MDP
- To evaluate the problems associated with internal accounting system in government establishments.
- To examine the effectiveness and problems of computer operation on internal accounting system.
- To offer suggestions for the improvement on the internal accounting system and
- To suggest possible solution in tackling the identified problems.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
These are the question one should ask his or her self concerning the effectiveness of computer operation on the internal accounting system in the government establishment during research work, they are
- What is computer?
- Why computer operation?
- What degree of compliance attained in line with general professional requirement on internal accounting system?
- How effective is computer in government establishment?
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is based on the effectiveness of computer operation on the internal accounting system in the government establishments. But since accounting system in operation in various organizations varies and with the fact that levels of effectiveness attained in one organization differ from another due to many factors such as:
- The degree of expert in services in each establishment.
- The rate of adaptation to the world technological advancement in computer operation.
- The degree of financial resources committed to computer operation.
- The number of years with which computer operation has been use in various organizations.
These and many more posed a restriction to the number of government establishment visited in the course of this study. Therefore all government organization in the country with computerized internal; accounting system could not be covered. A sample frame of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu was only taken.
Generalization was then based on the result obtained from the sample.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the internal accounting system on the general outlook may include the following:
- To evaluate its relationship with other organization of individuals.
- To indicate the monetary implication on the decision that will affect the future course of the organization activities and the policies that will underline such decision.
- The accomplishment of all these will be based on the effective provision of useful information both for internal user and external users of accounting information for efficient managerial decision making and for proper assessment of organizational growth.
- From the above, there have been several outstanding approaches to internal data processing (basically MDP and EDP) with the view of arriving of useful and timely information for effective managerial decision making.
So this study is purposely set out:
- To assess the effectiveness of computer operation on internal accounting system in the government establishments.
- To open the eyes of the organization (with uncomputerized accounting system) to the benefits derivable from application of computer operation.
Finally, it aims at securing as far as possible, efficiency and effectiveness in introduction and application of computer operation to data processing in government establishments.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Management: It is responsible for planning, organizing, implementing and evaluating the policies for the organization.
Management involves responsible for planning, organizing, implementing and evaluating the policies for the organization. It uses the tools available to it to control, co-ordinate, communicate, and motivate the entire workforce to achieve a desired objective. It involves policy formulation and determines the overall objective of the organization.
Management it is the body of knowledge of getting things done in the most efficient and effective manner.
Information: refer to whatever is communicated to another form of processed data for effective planning and coordinating of the organizations activities.
Information are the raw (original) items that would need to be processed to produce inc.
System: has been described as the detailed plan or a set of element that work together with available resources to accomplish a given task. System is the third word to consider in management. The objective of any given system is to structure whatever resources that are available within a designed area of operations so that desired objectives are achieved in an optimal manner.
A system must, therefore, establish formalized procedures of getting results in the most economic and efficient manner.
Data: are simply facts, numbers, letters or symbols transactions, events which have been recorded. They are input materials from which information is produced. Data are facts obtained by observation, counting, measuring weighting which are then recorded.
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