CREDIT MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA COMMUNICIAL BANKS
(A CASE STUDY OF FIRST AND UNION BANKS OF NIGERIA)
Granting of credit is risky and which has to be revise as the most important risk which Nigeria banks face, Therefore, is the risk which could cause a loss for a bank due default by customers in meeting their obligation.
In order to organize this, credit management involves credit analysis to assess and safeguard against the risk involves in the extension of credit, to bankers customers. This lead to the topic credit management in Nigeria commercial bank; this research work will contain chapters from one to five, in chapter at this project, the aim will be the introduction part of credit management in Nigeria commercial banks. It will state objective and significance at the study, it will also contain the statement of the problems which state as that.
Credit must be adequately managed so that banks could be remain business and it could be done through prudent lending. It will state how loan in commercial bank cannot be granted to customers. The statement will show that no matter how prudent a bank is, in its lending, they must make provision for bad and doubtful debts.
The scope and limitation of study and the test of hypothesis will also be review of related literature, under chapter two will define bank credits which will includes over draft, loan, and letter of credit. This chapter will state why bank should give credit, sources of repayment and characters of borrowers because characters of customers should be thoroughly change and investigated before granting only credit to such customer.
In chapter three it will show how research design and methodology will be collected, because the research for this project will base on primary source data collection and secondary source of data. Primary source of data include data which will obtain direct oral interview with some loans and advanced management/offers and some strategic management staff in commercial bank; secondary source will consist information from banks annual statement, Journals, news papers and other text books from libraries. Chapter four will show how data collected will be presented and analyze and chapter five will be summary and conclusion with bibliography.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 Background of study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Purpose/objective of the study
1.4 Research questions
1.5 Research hypothesis
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Scope, limitations and delimitations
1.8 Definitions of terms
Review of related literature
2.1 Definition of bank credit
Research design and methodology
3.1 research design
3.2 area of study
3.4 sample and sampling techniques
3.5 instruments of data collection
3.6 method of data presentation
3.7 methods of data analysis
Data presentation and analysis
4.1 data analysis and test of hypothesis
Findings, recommendation and conclusion
1.9 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The banking industry has been known for its intermediary role in providing financial assistance (credit) needed in the economy. this role of financial intermediation is carried out in so many ways. First to be mentioned is the granting of loans and advances to customers which constitutes the major part of banking lending. Apart from loans and advances, other forms of bank credits like bond issued banks for and on behalf of their customers.
In providing credits or for business venture, banks should as a matter at important take all necessary steps to ensure that advances are granted to those customers who can and will make judicious use at loans so that repayment will not become a problem. Therefore credit must be made to people who are capable for utilizing it well and repaying back the loan at its maturity data. Affairs at banks can be explained by reference to the fact that “loan and advances are the large single item in the asset structure of Nigeria commercial banks; it also constitutes the major source at the operating income at banks and also the most profitable asses for the employment of bank funds.
According to Olashore, “credit (Loan and advances) are important to the bank balance, they account for a large proportion at banks income; such operating income produced from sound investment and effective management of such funds in credits enables the bank to:
(i) Pay depositors interest
(ii) Pay investors dividend
(iii) Pay government tax
(iv) Have further investment and
(v) Maintain adequate reserves.
The actual work in connection with the management and conversion of such funds into various types of credit facilities in an operating function is performed by the credit department of commercial bank instruct compliance by the “Board of Director” at the bank, lie annual credit policy guidelines and prudential guideline (1990) of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and other monetary and fiscal policy issued by the government of Nigeria. The credit department is usually headed by a loan officer manager who has acquired a high skill experience and personal judgement criteria in credit administration.
Medium - term loans and long-term loan including overdraft facilities.
1.10 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:-
The only way to avoid bad debt is to refuse to lend money at all. But if banks should refuse to lend money at all issue at profitability is called hence the main purpose of carrying on business which is to maximize profit will be defeated. Credit must be adequately managed so that banks could remain in business and this could be done through prudent lending.
However, irrespective of how prudent a bank may be in its lending, the fact remain that every year, provision for bad and doubtful debts should be provided for. Not all loan should be granted. A profitable loan which is not safe should not be granted. The attitude of most borrowers to wards loans and advances granted to them should not be ignored. As they regard such credit facilities as their own share at the national cake.
Furthermore, failure at banks to make use of banks to make use of trained qualified and experienced personnel in their credit management is a problem that should be addressed.
Bank are merely customers of the money that depositors deposit with them, and hence interest must be paid to depositors and dividend to the investors. Credit management can be seen as an integral part of lending and as such in its absence, good loans can turn into bad one. It is expedient to note that the important of credit management cannot be over emphasized and good credit management required the establishment of Adherence to and of sound and efficient credit policies of government.
For banks to be successful their corporate credit policies must be sound procedures for monitoring and repayment, must be ensured adequately for credit appraisal disbursement. But experiences over the year has shown that inadequate credit analysis and sound judgement of loans application has resulted to outperforming loans. Provision of credits which are in the form of loans and advances are the total amount of money a given bank lends out to its customers at any given period of time. The bank usually charge the borrower interest for bank using its money. These loans and advances usually have maturity period.
Such credit facilities provided by banks are usually in the form of short term facilities.
THE OVERALL RESULTS OF THE ABOVE ARE:
(i) It exposes the bank to various problems of debt recovery.
(ii) Consequently expenses are incurred in form of provision made.
1.11 PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1. To investigate on the bad and doubtful debts in Nigeria Commercial Banks?
2. To examine the effects of bad and doubtful debt in Nigeria Commercial Banks Profitability.
3. To assess the incidence of bad debt on the banking industry and the economy in general.
4. To identify the possible measure of preventing the occurrence of bad debt in the Nigeria Commercial Banks.
1.12 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
(1) Does in appropriate loan supervision cause bad doubtful debts.
(2) What are the effects of bad and doubtful debt on your banks profitability?
(3) At what rate is the incidence of bad debt on the banking industry and the economy in general?
(4) What are the likely possible measures of preventing bad debt?
1.13 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
(1) Ho: Inappropriate loan supervision and monitoring is not the najo
cause of bad debt.
Hi: Inappropriate loan supervision and monitoring is the major
cause of bad debt.
Ho: Bad debt does not adversely affects the profitability of a bank.
Hi: Bad debt adversely affects the profitability of a bank.
Ho: The incidence of bad debt on the banking industry and the
economy in general is not high.
Hi: The incident of bad debt on the banking industry and the economy in general is high.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study is to make contribution on the going study of problem loans in the Nigerian commercial Banks. The study will also add to our understanding of how Nigerian commercial banks grant their credits.
This work is also relevant in educating the readers on the basic and conflicting rudiments of Nigeria commercial Banks Credit operations and the causes of bad and doubtful debts, stating also those who stands to benefit from the study and how.
The Beneficiaries of this study are:
(i) The practicing bankers.
(ii) The credit and loan officers,
(iii) The bank directors/managers
(iv) The investors etc.
Moreover, this study could be of immense help to students of banking and finance to equip them when they go into the field of the course they read.
1.8 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS:-
(a) CREDIT: This is financial assistance in form of loans and advances granted by banks to their customers.
(b) LOANS: A borrowed sums of money at an agreed rate at interest, usually for a specified period of time and repayable in line with the terms of the loan agreement.
(c) C.B.N: Central Bank of Nigeria; This is the apex regulatory authority of the financial system.
(d) CREDIT GUIDELINE: An annual monitoring circular (guiding Principle for Commercial and Merchant Banks lending published by the C.B.N.
(e) CREDIT POLICY: This rules and regulations guiding banks in their lending.
(f) BAD AND DOUBTFUL DEBTS: This offers to all the non-performing credit facilities to reflect such specification in the C.B.N prudential guidelines.
(g) OVER - DRAFT: This is a less formal credit facility by which a current account customer is allowed by a bank to write cheques in excess of the existing balance in his/her account.
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