DETERMINATION OF PH VALUE OF PURE WATER SACHET AND BORE HOLE WATER

(Bio-Chemistry)
DETERMINATION OF PH VALUE OF PURE WATER SACHET AND BORE HOLE WATER
ABSTRACT

            This project work focused on the determination of the PH values of pure water sachet and sample of borehole water found in Benin city, Edo State. The five different pure water sample analyzed include ages, Maria, Faith, Mark, Uniben and Uncle Sam. The five different borehole sample analyzed include the area located at 8 Edo Street, Ugbowo, Block 25 Technical Estate No, 46 Jonathan Akpobarie Street, Ohlucky Street BDPA, No 8, Otahigbogiue Street, Off Adolor College road Ugbowo, and NO 3, 15th Street Off Estate Junction road BDPA all located in Benin City. The result of the PH analysis show that majority of the pure water produces adhere to the PH of 7.0 to 7.20 recommended by the world health organisation (WHO). However, the result of the borehole samples PH analysis show acidic characters. Based on these findings, appropriate recommendations were made.     
TABLE OF CONTENT
Chapter One                        
Background of the study
Importance of pure water
Statement of problem
Purpose of the study
Aims and objectives of the study   
Significance of study
Hypothesis
Scope of study
Limitation
Definition of terms
Chapter Two           
Literature review
Characteristics of water
Sources and availability
Surface water
Ground water
Pollution
Water pollution
Factors responsible for water pollution
Effects
Domestic sewage effects
Industrial waste
Wastewater treatment plants
Heavy metal
Measurement of pollution characteristics
Physical characteristics
Chemical characteristics
World health organisation drinking water standard
Waste from natural sources
Thermal pollution of surface water
Classification of water pollutants
Chapter Three                     
Research methodology
Population of sample
Sample techniques
Experimental
Chapter Four                       
Presentation and analysis of data
Sampling stations
Summary of PH of sachet water sample and borehole sample
Chapter Five            
General observation
Conclusion
References               
            CHAPTER ONE
1.1         BACKGROUND OF STUDY
WHAT IS WATER?
            Water is the most abundant liquid on earth it covers three quarters of the earth surface. Oceans cover wsout 72% of the earth and the average depth is 2.5 miles. The oceans are the source of 97% of all water. The rest consist of 2.1% in glaciers, 0.6% fresh water in lakes and rivers 0.6% ground waters and 0.1% in brine well and brackish waters.
            Water is the major components of living things for example, the water content of human adult is 70% the same proportion as the earths surface. Water is a liquid, which is colourless, odourless and tasteless. Human activities and settlements hinge on the availability of water. In man, three quarters of the fluid in him are made of water, water forms the essential medium in which the chemical reactions of his cells processed.
IMPORTANCE OF WATER                                                 
            Our physical biological environment play important role on water. As a vapour, it absorbs radiation to influence the heat balance and temperature of the environment thereby bringing moisture to the containment through the water cycle. Human activities and settlement also generate important role on water availability which is used as a medium into which man disposes his wastes which could be industrial domestic or agricultural. Water is so important that it is involves in almost every activity in man.    
1.2         STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The research her realised that some of the pure water sachets and boreholes water have a lot of problems interms of not using the adequate or sufficient PH value recommended by the NAFDAC. As this has direct effect with the general interest of the consumers positively or negatively which influences the all round achievement in pure water sachets and borehole water. So in doing this, the following questions call for attention.
1.            Are pure water sachet companies in Benin City have too much acid content?
2.            Are the borehole water have too much acid content
3.            Is effluent from sewage plant properly treated?
4.            Are all the pure water sachet companies registered with the NAFDAC
5.            Does drinking water have taste, odour and colour?
1.3         PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The relevance of this research work is to examine and make a report on PH value of sachet water samples and borehole water sample in Benin City. Some of the drinking water has already been contaminated, that is to say, the packaging and that of the nylons used to package the treated water are not properly checked. This research work is also aim to determine to what level pure water sachet and borehole water contained too acid and also to check whether all the pure water sachet companies are registered with NAFDAC (national Agency for food and Drug Administration Company).   
1.4         AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY  
The aims and objective of this study is to provide possible solutions that will sustain pure water sachet companies and borehole water in Benin City, Edo State.
1.            To ensure consumer buy pure water sachet registered with NAFDAC.
2.            To encourage consumers to report to the NAFDAC, if they see pure water sachet not registered being sold for drinking.
3.            To ensure pure water companies, the PH value of the water produced for consumption are within the standard recommended by the WHO for drinking water.
4.            To check packaging and ensuring that the nylons used to package the treated water do not contaminate the water put into it or give it some unwanted odour or taste.
5.            To ensure that, the best chemical is been used during the treatment of water.
6.            To ensure that sewage water be treated carefully.
7.            To sanction all the pure water companies not registered with NAFDAC.     
1.5         SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The researcher hopes what this research work will go along way for the society in developing the positive effects and thinking towards the determination of PH value of pure water sachets and bore hole sample. The research work is considered on believe to make the treatment more inclined to pure water sachet and bore hole water and greatly helps the companies in formulating a well planned programmer that will inculcate the right attitude towards the PH value of pure water sachet and borehole water in Benin City.
The research study is believed will make reforms of the present greatly increasingly emphasis on providing the treatment equipment for the pure water sachet and borehole water. The researcher study is to make all the pure water sachets and borehole water to be properly checked before drinking in order to improve good health.
Finally, the research work is believed to make an effort so that all the effluence from sewage plant is treated with chloride before drinking.    
1.6         HYPOTHESIS
1.            Some of the pure water sachet companies in Benin City have too much acid content.
2.            Some of the bore hole water have too much acid content
3.            The effluent from sewage plant is not properly treated.
4.            Some of the pure water sachet companies is not registered with NAFDAC.
5.            Some drinking water has taste, odour and colour.
1.7         SCOPE OF STUDY
This research study covers five selected pure water sachets companies and five of many different type of borehole water were looked into to see if there PH is in line with the recommendation for drinking water from the world health organisation WHO standard in respect to PH of each water sample.
PURE WATER SAMPLE
1.            Uniben pure water
2.            Maria pure water
3.            Ages pure water
4.            Faith mark pure water  
5.            Uncle Sam pure water
BOREHOLE SAMPLE
1.            No 8 Edo Street off technical road
2.            Black 25 technical estate
3.            No 46 Jonathan Akpobaries street
4.            No 3 15th Street off estate junction
5.            No. 8 Otahoigbogie Street, off Adolor College.
1.8         DEFINITION OF TERMS
Water: This is a liquid without colour, taste or odour that falls as rain, is in lake, rivers, and seas, is used for drinking, washing and so on.
Pollution: It is a change in physical, chemical, or Biological conditions in the environment of the air. Water or land that can harmfully affect health, survival, or activities of human or other living organisms.
Acid: These are the compounds that produces hydrogen ion (H+) as the only positive ions.
Base: It is a compound that produces hydroxide ions (H-) in aqueous solutions.
PH: This is defined as the negative logarithm to base ten of the hydrogen ion concentration.  
         

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