EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION IN DECISION MAKING AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT

(Business Administration and Management)
EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION IN DECISION MAKING AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT
(A CASE STUDY OF I.M.T)
ABSTRACT

This project work was written in attempt to give a unique touch on Employee Participation in Decision Making and Organizational Commitment. It deals with the nature of employee participation in organizational decision-making and also the commitment of the employees in the organization good accomplishment as a result of their participation in the organization decision.
 TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE
 1.0         INTRODUCTION
1.1         CENTRAL BACKGROUND FOR THE SUBJECT MATTER
1.2         PROBLEM ASSOCIATE WITH THE SUBJECT MATTER
1.3         PROBLEM THAT THE STUDY WILL BE CONCENTRATED WITH
1.4         THE IMPORTANT OF STUDYING THE AREA
1.5         DEFINITION OF IMPORTANT TERMS
1.6         REFERENCE USING APA METHOD
CHAPTER TWO
2.0         LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1         THE ORIGIN OF SUBJECT AREA
2.2         SCHOOL OF THOUGHT WITH THE SUBJECT AREA
2.3         THE SCHOOL OF THOUGHT TO THE PROBLEM STUDY
2.4         DIFFERENT METHOD OF STUDYING THE PROBLEM OF STUDY
2.5         SUMMARY
2.6         REFERENCE
CHAPTER THREE
3.0         CONCLUSION
3.1         DATA PRESENTING PRINCIPAL OF THE STUDY
3.2         ANALYSIS OF THE DATA
3.3         RECOMMENDATION
3.4         CONCLUSION
3.5         REFERENCE
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
            This project presents a brief review of employee participation in decision-making and organization commitment. It is intended to investigate the types, structure and organization of the Institute of Management and Technology (I.M.T.) Enugu in general. In view of this, the importance is based mainly on the believe that such organization or institution are likely to facilitate the development of a broader base, increase regional spread of activities, indigenes decision making for the organization.
            In addition, the promoting of employee participation in decision making in organization is seen as a major factor for boosting organization their superiors.
            To crown it all, suggestions would be made with regard to the technique which could be adopted in the future to promote the existence of employee participation in decision making and organizational commitment and with the last section which could be adopted on the future to promote the existence of employee participation in decision making and organizational commitment and with the last section which consist of the recommendation conclusion and suggestions for the further study.
1.1         GENERAL BACKGROUND TO THE   SUBJECT MATTER
Before going into subject matter proper, let us first of all know what this topic is all about. Who is an employee? an employee is somebody being employed into an organization to work torwards the achievement of the organizational goals and objective. Participation on the other hand means to take parts or to have a share in something. Decision-making refers to selecting among available alternative solution. Organization Commitment refers to a task that must be done.
            Therefore, employee participation in decision–making and organizational commitment refers to how the employee can take part in the task that will be done in the organization. Decision making involves three distinct stages namely: Intelligent stage which is expected from top management, design stage which refer to choosing from available which can solve the immediate problem in the organization in both short and long run plan.
If one should ask why should employees be allowed to participate in decision-making, if it has any effect on the organization some may say “yes” while some or others said “no”, we discovered that the employee has to be considered in the decision making of the organization. This is why the human relation approach to personnel management. This is a decision –making process where workers discuss with their supervisors and influence decision that affects them. It explores the feeling and opinions of workers about their jobs with the use of participative management. Every group is consulted before any change is initiated. Through this system every worker develops a sense of participation which results in high productivity.
            In an Institute like Institute of Management and Technology (I.M.T)  Enugu, decision –making is very vital in order to attain the objective of the institution. To arrive at a decision in the institution, the employee should not be left out. As it is, employee participation has been referred to as mental and emotional involvement of persons in group situation that encourage them to contribute to group goals and share responsibility. For them as the employee participation commitment that they discharge and organizational commitment represent an agreement on the part of the employee with  the goals and objectives of the organization and a willingness to work towards these goals. As a result of this, we can deduce simply that the employees are more favorably disposed towards giving off their very best as it concern the overall aspiration of the organization. If they are giving the opportunity to participate in decision making process of an institution like I.M.T Enugu .
 Brief Background Of The Institute Of Management And Technology (I.M.T) Enugu
            The Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu came into life as a result of the Management of two schools. The Institute of Administration and the College of Technology in April 1972.
            In October of the same year, a provisional council of the proposed new institute was appointed by the East Central Government. The council when commissioned was determined and recommended to the government. The appropriate structures of an Autonomous Institutions managerial man power in the subject area directed by the state and national needs. The council submitted its reports in early April 1973. On 31st May, 1973 which is the birth day of the Institute of Management and Technology (I.M.T) Enugu.
1.2       The Institution started admission with 550 students in addition to the 300 Second year students inherited from formed college of Technology making it a total of 850 students. The institution started with 20 senior staff including the registry the academic staff and 4 administrative staff. It stared with eleven department grouped into three divisions, the division of Business Studies, and the division of General Studies and division of Technology, presently the institution has grown to large extent both in the number of student number of personnel staff and number of department.
1.2 PROBLEM ASSOCIATION WITH EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION IN
      DECISION MAKING AND ORGANIZATION COMMITMENT.  
In a country like Nigeria the cry that average Nigerian worker’s commitment to his work and organization is low and often feel indifferent and less concerned to the goals and objective of the organization where he works is an unfair development. This   gives double mind for those who are genuine lovers of Nigeria and would have to see if properly founded on a fantastic economic pedestal or   foundation.
Lack of organizational commitment is a problem. This is in no small measure threatening organization that experience it. Nothing goes as expected due to the ill disposition of employees towards the demand of their various responsibilities. However, Institute of Management and Technology  (I.M.T) Enugu, like other organizational institutions that obviously need a good committed work force for it to achieve set goals and objective. And this commitment can prevail under a condition whereby the employees are allowed to participate in the organizational decision making directly as it affects them and hence perceive and have their priority needs and expectations fulfilled by the organization. The main thing is to know what employee participation is all about? It is imperative therefore to find answer to the question below in attempt to in decision madding and organizational commitment mean. Which is: is there a relationship that exist between employee participating on decision making and organization commitment. If there is, what is the nature of such relationship? How can employee participation be achieved such that goals of the organization will be  reached?  Among answer to the question is what this project work is intended to arrive on.
1.3         PROBLEM THAT THIS STUDY WILL BE CONCERNED WITH
There are set number of problem which are to be solved or reached in this project work. However, the specific among them are:
1.3.1     To determine the extent to which lack of employee participation in decision-making has been instrumental to the level of low productivity on the Institute of Management Technology  (I.M.T) Enugu.
1.3.2     To make some relevant contributions toward the study of organizational behavior in our country.
1.3.3     To recommend to modern manager alternative programme to employee participation.  
1.3.4     To portray the need for managers to always allow proper degree of employee participation.
1.3.5     To find out if employee participation might be positively related to employee commitment.
1.4   THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION IN DECISION MAKING AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT IN I.M.T.
      The importance of this project work is apparently evident and needs not to be over emphasized participation is a very important theory that works in a variety of jobs. It ensures that workers view on matters that affect them are sought to enable them reasonably satisfy the top four needs of Maslows hierarchy theory as well as improve the psychological health of workers as citizens these needs are those of safety and security, belongings and affecting social ego needs and needs are for self-actualization and fulfillment. The satisfaction of the needs correlates positively with employee organizational commitment. An organization cannot accomplish its set goals and objectives, if it does not have committed employees that cannot utilize their potentials to the fullest. It’s a matter of parts, employee participation can be applied structure with the features of a flat decentralized organization, such as giving a subordinates more opportunity to do his own way allowing him /her to use more of his initiative, permitting him to satisfy his eqoistic needs; that is needs for knowledge achievement, competence, independence, self respect, recognition, respect from others, etc.
These features as explained above also correlate directly with organizational commitment. To this view, the project work is significant in exposing such errors in motivational organization. It will be reasonable that the Management of I.M.T will use the finding of this project work in order to operate effectively, for employees to achieve their own goals best by directing their own efforts toward the objective of the organization /institution in which they work.
This will enable I.M.T achieve its task of increased services. And this project work will equally be beneficial to modern managers of various establishment and industries, who are now better armed with the necessary tools to engender hinder productivity. The Nigerian economy that will consequent with employee involvement enjoy a fantastic boom from its chaquered history of unproductivity.
            In theory however this work will contribute to the efforts among students of organization behavior, to highlight participation as an effective way to motivate the worker to put in their best to the attainment of the organizational goals. Also this project work in this area, in view of some workers they are in accord that employee participation has potentials for endangering organizational commitment, although a lot of project work have been done on the employee participation, and organizational commitment and behavior in general, foreign writers for their societies develop much of the literatures on this area. It’s a result of difference in culture context, which is a basis for standing group behavior; the need for indigenous contributions on the subject of motivation cannot be overstressed. We should by all means find the more appropriate method of motivation that suit our people as regard to their cultural background. This will go a long way in ensuring better commitment to work by the employees. This will help the organization and institution in accomplishing their goals and objective.
1.5         DEFINITION OF IMPORTANT TERMS   
1.5.1 Employee participation refers to when an employee takes part in the test that will be done in a participation group or organization.
1.5.2 organizational commitment is the task that must be done in the organization.
1.5.2 Decision – making refers to selecting among available alternative solution.
         

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