(Business Administration and Management)

This research work was undertaken with a view to ascertaining the community development in Enugu state of Nigeria with a focus on Enugu East local government Area- as a case study.  The work looked critically (in question) towards community development within its area of jurisdiction.  In doing this, the researcher based his study on the provision of the 1s976 local government reform in Nigeria which made community development one of the explicit functions of the local government councils. In carrying out the research, primary and secondary data were used.  Related literature were reviewed (secondary data chapter 2) and questionnaire were equally prepared and administered to local government functionaries (primary data chapter 4). The technique use in analyzing the primary data is the chi-square (x2). The finding of the research was reached using the result of the tested hypothesis.  For the analysis, it was found that many factors act as stumbling blocks on the way of community development in Enugu East local.  Government area and the state general. Such factors include:
a.     Lack of adequate organization frame work and orientation
b.     Lack of dedication and commitment on the part of the local government councils to the cause of community development.
c.      Misplacement of organization priorities and consequently, misdirection of funds
d.     Lack of executive capacity arising from lack of adequate trained, motivated and dedicated staff for effective and efficient implementation of council decision.
e.     the unhealthy political atmosphere existing in the local government councils.
f.      And finally, the unreliable external funding and inability to generate revenue for development purposes.  
From the above findings, the researcher concluded by making a sense of recommendations among which are the co-ordination of the development efforts of the various formal and informal organizations in the overall community development programmes, and procurement of adequately trained personnel for the organizational and educational processes associated with community development.
1.0        Background of the study                                               
1.1        Statement of the study                                         
1.2        Objective of the study                                          
1.3        Research Questions                                                     
1.4        Significance of the study                                               
1.5        Scope of the study                                                      
1.6        Research Questions                                                     
1.7        Limitation of the study                                          
1.8        Definition of terms                                                       
Literature Review
2.1    Concepts and Definitions of Community Development
Historical background of community development As obtain in Nigeria                                                 
2.2    History Background of Community Development as Obtained in Nigeria                                                       
2.3    Role of local government councils in community Development                                                            
2.4    Major Constraints of Enugu East                             
2.5    Implementation Strategies to rural development
2.6    Step for Effective Rural Development                     
2.7Other organizations involved in community         
Research design & methodology
3.0    Research methodology
3.1        Research Design                                                  
3.2        Area of Study                                                             
3.3        Population of the Study                                                
3.4        Sample Size Determination                                   
3.5        Instrument for Data Collection                               
3.6        Validity of the Instrument                                     
3.7        Reliability of Instrument                                                
3.8        Method of Data Collection                                     
3.9        Method of Data Analysis                                               
4.0    Presentation and Analysis of Data                          
Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation
 5.1   Findings                                                                     
5.2    Conclusions                                                        
5.3    Recommendation                                                
Appendix a: Research Questionnaire
Local governments have and will continue to be one of the prime mores of development in different parts of the world and their importance and impact on daily activities of citizens cannot be over emphasized. The terms local government refers to a political authority set up by a nation or state as a subordinate authority for the purposes of dispensing or decentralizing political power.  In the English sense, it means local self government.
Local government is a political sub-division of a national government, or in federal system, a sub-division of regional government in fact; local government administration is so intentioned with community development that any discussion on one out of necessity involves the other.  This is because local government in essence, was created solely to bring development to the communities at the grass root.
Community development is not a new ideology. It is defined as a process by which the efforts of the people themselves are linked with those of governmental authorities to improve the economic, social and cultural conditions of communities, to integrate them into life of the action, and to enable them to contribute fully to the national progress.  Also the role of local government in the promotion of development at the local level is clearly recognized as one of the underlying basis of the 1976 local government reforms which emphasized that none of the principal objectives of local government is to mobilize human and material resources through the involvement of members of the public in the promotion of local government
Many communities had built school, constructed roads and bridges, and organized higher education, scholarship schemes for their children etc.  Community development as we recognize today is based on and has grown out of experience of the past. What is new is that these principles are now becoming more widely recognize than ever before.  The principles of community development are not new, but it is the emphasis which makes almost a revolutionary. The concept of community development is based on the faith in the ability of the people to learn how to help them attain an improved standard of living building better communities taking one step at a time.
Rural development has thus remained op the priority item o the programmes of the administration. In drawing up the blue print for rural development, government of Enugu state aims primary at sensitizing and mobilizing the people at the grass roots level and deliberately and actively involving them in effective community development, encouraging, integrated and multi-dimension approach to community development for the government to achieve the grass roots development, it must get closer to the people.  Community development groups and local government should work very closely, because for instance, a service project such as maternity dispensary or school which is built without the full support of the relevant local government, has very lean chances of survival, since the running and main tenancy expenses of such services are usually too heavy to be borne unaided b such community.
 Enugu Urban council was created in 1976. Then in 1991 Enugu East and south local
Government was carried out of the main/former Enugu local government area. The council is consist of six (6) major departments personnel; health; works; financial; agriculture; and education and development. The council is made up of two sets of staff.
The executive and the career officers.  At the apex of the organization, the chairman is the chief executive and the controller of both men and materials including finances.
Below him is the vice chairman who assists and co-ordinate the activities delegated to him from time to time.  Below their levels are the four line supervisors charged of agric, health, education, community development and works respectively. Both the chairman and the supervisors are the policy maker as far as the council is concerned.
On the other hand, the local government service commission is the employer of all carrier civil servants under this local government system. At the apex of the carrier officers is the secretary director of personnel who is in charged of the day to day administration. Below him is a deputy secretary who co-ordinate the activities of both senior and the junior staff including other functions in his schedule.  The internal auditor occupies a central position midway between the carrier officers and the executive chairman.
He is the alarm clock of the council especially when he envisages that anything goes wrong with the expenditure of government fund.  He may raise an audit alarm.  Below this levels are the line carrier staff known as heads of department.  Each occupying specific department such as agric, 1-6 above. Each H.O.D maintains discipline within his area, check the attendant and roll call and distribute functions amongst the rank and file senior and junior staff under him.
In local government there are some operative statutory committee charged with specific functions:
a.     The junior staff management committee with a chairman and secretary. This organ is charged with discipline, promotion, transfer and conversion of junior staff under grade level 01-06
b.     F and a: This is an organ responsible for monetary approval and expenditure above to N500, 000.00 to N1m.
The executive chairman acts as the chairman while the local government secretary acts as his secretary.
Community development is a department solely charged with co-ordination development activities in various communities between the councils area of jurisdiction
However, the departments cannot carryout or execute its functions departments or units within the council for example, community development as a department heeds funds which must be raised and released by the finance department from its internally generated revenue sources.  In addition, for a community project to be implemented the survey and planning department must be carried out his own specific duties in town planning and market designs, so also road works and maintenance, building of markets, as well as agricultural development cannot succeed without the works department engineers and agric officers.  Health is one of the major premises of community development functions.
Our understanding in this study is to investigate and appraise to what extent the local government council as represented by Enugu East local government area of Enugu state , has been and to mobilize human ad material resources for development of its area of authority.  In line with the 1976 local government reforms.
The researcher will also in this course of this study to find answers to the following problems.
a.     To what extents has the community development objectives of the present local government system been realized in Enugu East local government area.
b.     To what extent has the local government approach to community development facilitated the realization of the reforms, including the present military government rural development objectives?
c.      Is there not a better alternative to the local government council’s current attitude to community development?
        The above questions are closely interlinked and will be my guide to conduct this appraisal work and suggest some possible solutions where necessary.
1.     The essence of local government is to bring about sustained development at the grass root level.
2.     To find effective ways of stimulating teaching and helping people to adopt new methods and to learn new skills.
3.     To ensure the preservative of the community spirit.
4.      To find out it there are wider political representation
5.     To determine if there are cheaper service
6.     Establishing a good base for the collecting of basic statistical information necessary for economic planning.
It is importance to point out that easy research must have some element of important need or purpose of which it needed to carryout on proffer a solution.
The local state government will be able to apply the out come of the study in their functions.  The people that will benefit from the study are the staff of Enugu east local government and the people i.e. villages of Enugu east local government. Those systems should be encouraged in other to achieve the goals and objective of the study especially in the area of community development.
This research work is aimed at studying the efforts of local government councils towards community development in Enugu state, using Enugu State as a case study.
Thus, is a tentative question or statements the research purposes which enables him/her to carryout the necessarily very well and proffer a lasting solution to the problems.
To what extent has the local government helped in the community development?
Has the local government created impact in the lives of people living in the rural areas?
What measures can be adopted in order to research the majority of the rural areas?
What are the challenges in weakness that hinder the local government operation?
What are the solutions that can be sued to curb the situation or condition?
1.      Community – This refers to a place where people live together.
2.      Community Development:  This is measure or mechanism seen take a by a group of people in order to developed a community.
3.     Decentralization: This refers as a process of sharing of power.
4.     Ideology:  This is a modalities or principles that brought out by a group/community.


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